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Wednesday, 12 September 2018

BOOK REVIEW #4: 1900


Welcome to my fourthbook review, 1900, by Stefanos Milesis and Panagiotis Tripontikas. This book brings to light the crossing of the Atlantic Ocean by the Hellenic Navy masted cruiser "Navarhos Miaoulis",a voyage that broke all the records set since the establishment of the Modern Greek State! The book has not been published in English yet, therefore the review is written for Greek-speaking readers. 

1900, ένα ναυτικό και ιστορικό διήγημα
Φωτογραφία του ευδρόμου Ν. Μιαούλης
Η πλειονότητα των βιβλίων στρατιωτικής ιστορίας αναφέρονται σε μάχες, σε πράξεις ηρωισμού σε συνθήκες πολέμου, σε πολεμικά κατορθώματα, σε εξελίξεις στον οπλισμό και τη στρατηγική. Το βιβλίο που παρουσιάζεται σε αυτό το άρθρο αποτελεί εξαίρεση. Το ιστορικό διήγημα «1900» των Στέφανου Μίλεση, συγγραφέας και δημοσιογράφος, και Παναγιώτη Τριπόντικα, Αντιπλοίαρχος στο ΠΝ σήμερα και πρώην διευθυντής του Μουσείου Θ/Κ Αβέρωφ, εξιστορεί ένα σημαντικότατο κατόρθωμα, μια πράξη ανδρείας των Ελλήνων στελεχών του Πολεμικού Ναυτικού, μια πράξη ξεχωριστή αφού έλαβε χώρα σε ειρηνική περίοδο και συνάμα ιδιαιτέρως ιστορική. Το «1900» είναι το πρώτο βιβλίο που εκδίδεται στο είδος του από το Πλωτό Ναυτικό Μουσείο Θ/Κ ΑΒΕΡΩΦ και αφηγείται ένα ναυτικό εγχείρημα ξεχασμένο από πολλούς και παραγκωνισμένο από τις ναυμαχίες και τα πολεμικά κατορθώματα του ναυτικού της Ελλάδας, ενός Ναυτικού του οποίου οι ρίζες της ιστορίας του χάνονται στα βάθη των αιώνων της ιστορίας του ανθρώπινου γένους.
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Tuesday, 14 August 2018

WARSHIPS OF THE PAST: Ivan Rogov class large landing ships of the Russian Navy

Written by Keith Jacobs
Images by D-Mitch

Mitrofan Moskalenko, the third vessel in the Ivan Rogov class
The Ivan Rogov (Project 1174) class amphibious dock landing ships (LPD) were in the early 1970s the largest amphibious warship design then attempted by the former-Soviet Union. They were robust, highly flexible, and expensive in construction and maintenance costs, but offered for the first time, long-distance operational capability to place Soviet naval infantry in such distant locations as the eastern Mediterranean, Indian Ocean, or Southeast Asia, in conducting mosrkaia descantnaia operatsiia (Sea Landing Operation) in support of Soviet policy objectives. Till today, the three vessels of the Project 1174 LPD, are the largest amphibious warfare ships ever commissioned by the Russian Navy.

Mitrofan Moskalenko, the third and most advanced vessel in the Ivan Rogov class

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Monday, 30 July 2018

INFOGRAPHICS #38: World's ballistic missile submarines

Written by D-Mitch

The North Korean Sinpo/Gorae class submarine, currently
the only SSB in service with the North Korean Navy

This is the introduction to an article I wrote some months ago for the world-wide known Popular Mechanics, the official website of the famous classic magazine of popular science and technology (the first issue was published on January 11, 1902!). The article titled "All the Nuclear Missile Submarines in the World in One Chart" looks at today's world's ballistic missile submarines, their numbers and capabilities. A ballistic missile submarine is a submarine capable of deploying submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) with nuclear warheads. Officially only seven countries in the entire world deploy nuclear weapons at sea, an exclusive and deadly club. The ballistic missile submarine, either nuclear-powered (SSBN) or diesel-electric (SSB), is the most reliable means of nuclear deterrence. These vessels would survive a first strike and retaliate, which is meant to prevent an enemy from ever using its weapons. These fearful underwater giants stay hidden in the oceans avoiding detection at all costs and are always ready for the moment they might be needed. Enjoy my take on these marvelous beasts here!
World's Ballistic Missile Submarines. For high resolution image click here.
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Sunday, 22 July 2018

INFOGRAPHICS #37: The Asian submarine forces by subregion in 2018

Written by D-Mitch

Aerial view of PLAN Type 094 SSBN's missile compartment
In the following infographics, I depict all the submarines that are in active service in Asia as of July 1st 2018, by subregion. I do this in order anyone could easily compare the forces of neighboring countries. The submarine forces of Western Asian, West Asian, Southwestern Asian or Southwest Asian countries (Iran, Turkey, Egypt, Israel) are excluded, as their forces are included already in other graphs such as The attack submarines of the Mediterranean in 2018 or The attack submarines of Asia and Australia in 2018 (China and Russia excluded). The North Asian submarine forces (only Russia belongs to that subregion of Asia) are excluded as well while the Central Asian countries have not submarines in their inventories. In all graphs mini-submarines and small coastal submarines are not included. Notice that in Southeast Asia, Thailand will join the rest of the submarine forces with three submarines in its inventory. There are 136 submarines in total in East Asia, 25 in South Asia and 17 in Southeast Asia.

The East Asian submarines in 2018. For a high resolution image click here.
The South Asian submarines in 2018. For a high resolution image click here.
The Southeast Asian submarines in 2018. For a high resolution image click here.

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Sunday, 15 July 2018

INFOGRAPHICS #36: The Americas submarines in 2018

Written  by D-Mitch
The Chilean Scorpenes are currently the most
modern diesel-electric submarines in the continent
In the following infographic, named The Americas Submarines, I depict all the submarines that are in active service in America as of July 1st 2018. Currently, the United States Navy operates a massive amount of powerful nuclear-powered submarines, consisting of 14 Ohio class ballistic missile submarines (SSBN), four (4) Ohio class (modified) guided missile submarines (SSGN), three (3) Seawolf class nuclear-powered attack submarines (SSN) (including the highly modified USS Jimmy Carter SSN-23), 16 Virginia class SSN, 22 Improved Los Angeles class SSN, and 10 Los Angeles class SSN (see The United States Navy submarines in 2018). Three more Los Angeles boats are on paper still in commission but actually are out of service. San Francisco is being converted to Moored Training Ship (MTS), Jacksonville, has started a months-long preparation for inactivation and decommissioning and Buffalo is under inactivation and decommissioning procedure. Regarding the rest of the countries in the continent, there is no nuclear-powered  submarine (SSN) in any Navy (at least until Brazil commissions its first vessel after 2020), neither there is a submarine equipped with Air-Independent Propulsion (AIP) system (the Chilean Scoprene class submarines are fitted but not with the system and will receive it in a future refit). It should be mentioned also that from the 21 countries of Latin America, only seven navies (7) have submarines in their fleet; Peru has the most numerous fleet but Brazil and Chile the most modern submarine fleets in the region. Moreover, the 92% of the Latin American submarines are German-built (!). Also, Argentina, while it has in its inventory the largest submarine in the region (TR1700 class: 67 meters length and 2,100t displacement), none of its submarines is currently in active service (see more details at The Attack Submarines of Latin America in 2018). In the Americas, there are 98 submarines in total of which the 69 are of the U.S.Navy.

The Americas submarines in 2018. For a high resolution image click here.
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Saturday, 30 June 2018

INFOGRAPHICS #35: HMS Rodney battleship of the Royal Navy

HMS Rodney, Nelson class battleship of the Royal Navy
HMS Rodney (pennant number 29) was one of two Nelson-class battleships built for the Royal Navy in the mid-1920s. The ship was named after Admiral Lord Rodney. The Nelsons were unique in British battleship construction, being the only ships to carry a main armament of 16-inch (406 mm) guns (nine guns in three turrets!), and the only ones to carry all the main armament forward of the superstructure (the French followed the British example in 1937 with the commissioning of their Dunkerque class and later with the Richelieu class). They were designed as larger ships but 'cut down' by the Washington Treaty of 1922, the design was limited to 35,000 tons (216 meters overall length) and showed certain compromises. To accommodate 16-inch main guns in three turrets, all of the turrets were placed forward and the vessel's speed was reduced and maximum armor was limited to vital areas. Even with the design limitations forced on the designers by the treaty, Rodney and Nelson were regarded as the most powerful battleships afloat until the new generation of all big gun ships was launched in 1936. Note that they were the only British battleships built between the Revenge class (ordered in 1913) and the King George V class, ordered in 1936. As her superstructure was located aft of midships like RN fleet oilers whose names carried the ...'ol' suffix, she was sometimes derisively referred to as "Rodnol".

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Thursday, 14 June 2018

BOOK REVIEW #3: The Best of Don Winslow of the Navy

Welcome to my third book review, The Best of Don Winslow of the Navy, A Collection of High-Seas Stories from Comics' Most Daring Sailor!

The Best of Don WInslow of the Navy.
Publisher: Dead Reckoning, U.S. Naval Institute
Welcome to my third book review! This time, the book I will present and review here isn’t actually a literature book but a book collection of the best stories from a famous American comic! This comic is the classic Fawcett run of Don Winslow of the Navy, one of the most popular comics running during and after World War II! Don Winslow of the Navy was introduced to the American public in March, 1934, originally as a comic strip in newspapers in the ‘30s and ‘40s. The comic magazine, as it was known at the time, was launched in February, 1943, by Fawcett Publications containing the original stories of Don Winslow in the form of short stories. The Don Winslow of the Navy comic was originally created by Frank V. Martinek, Lt. Commander in U.S. Naval Intelligence in order to stimulate the interest of young Americans about military life and thus to foster recruitment (especially in the Navy), as well as to entertain and engage military audiences and the general public. Somebody can imagine how exciting or mysterious a life on the sea would be to people from the Midwestern United States and Mountain United States, many of whom might not have even seen the ocean.
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Monday, 28 May 2018

INFOGRAPHICS #34: The attack submarines of Asia and Australia in 2018 (China and Russia excluded)

Written  by D-Mitch

Japan, perhaps except Russia and China, has the most
modern and advanced submarine fleet in Asia region.
In the following infographic, named The Attack Submarines of Asia and Australia in 2018, I depict all the attack submarines that are in active service in Asia and Australia continents  right now (and will continue to be part of their Navies until the end of 2018). Please note that in comparison with the previous graphs,  The Attack Submarines of Europe in 2017 (updated for 2018), The Attack Submarines of Latin America in 2018, and The Attack Submarines of the Mediterranean in 2018, two countries are excluded from the graph; China and Russia, both superpowers which have numerous submarines in their fleets (Russian Navy submarine fleet and PLA Navy submarine fleet). Countries such as the United States of America and others that have naval bases in the region are not included as well in the graph. Note that there is only one navy in the region (except Russia and China always) with nuclear-powered  submarine (SSN), and specifically only India has in its inventory an Improved Akula class submarine which has been leased from Russia for 10 years. India also is the only country with nuclear ballistic missile submarines (SSBN) in its fleet (currently two Arihant class boats). There are also navies that have submarine-launched cruise missile capability which belong to Vietnam (Kilo class with Club-S), India  (Kilo and Akula classes with Club-S) and Israel (Dolphin I/II class with Popeye Turbo). Moreover, there are seven countries in the region with submarines in their inventories equipped with (or fitted but not with) Air-Independent Propulsion (AIP) system; Japan (nine in its inventory), India (two in its inventory), South Korea (eight in its inventory), Pakistan (three in its inventory), Singapore (two in its inventory), Israel (two in active service) and Malaysia (two in its inventory). Japan has the most numerous fleet (20 boats), India has the largest submarine (INS Chakra: displacement of 12,700t submerged and length of 110 meters), Iran the smallest one (Fateh class: displacement of 590t submerged and length of 48 meters) except the numerous midget submarines that has together with North Koerea, and Taiwan the oldest ones (the two Hai Shih class submarines were launched in 1944-45!) which however they are sure superior to the younger Type 033 class submarines of North Korea. One more country will join the club in the coming years and this is Thailand.

The Attack Submarines of Asia and Australia in 2018. For a high resolution image click here.
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Tuesday, 22 May 2018

PHOTO GALLERY #17: Aboard the Hellenic Navy destroyer Sachtouris (D-214), in the STANAVFORMED, back in the '90s

Photos by Spyros P.

Sachtouris (D-214), Gearing-class FRAM I destroyer
The Sachtouris (D214) was a United States Navy Gearing-class FRAM I destroyer launched in 1945 as USS Arnold J. Isbell (DD-869), she was transferred to Greece in 1974 and renamed. She remained in active service until October 1992 and reportedly scrapped in Turkey in 2002. The following (scanned) photos were taken by Spyros P. who served aboard the destroyer; all photos were taken in 1992 (some time before she was decommissioned) when the Greek vessel was part of the NATO Standing Naval Force Mediterranean (STANAVFORMED or SNFM) (Standing NATO Maritime Group 2 - SNMG2) today) and its patrols and visits in the Adriatic Sea and the Mediterranean. A big thank to Spyros for sharing with us these unique photos. From my side, I tried to identify the ships illustrated and provide some descriptions. All the frigates and destroyers are mentioned, were part of the force that time. Enjoy!

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Sunday, 13 May 2018

Greek Maritime Patrol Aircraft: Past, Present and Future

Written by Γ.Μ.

A pair of Hellenic Navy P-3B Orions in formation
Compared to other operational means, the specialized maritime patrol aircraft offers a number of advantages such as high response speed, great autonomy, the ability to carry a variety of sensors and weapons, and others, in order to fulfill their mission. Thus, provided that they are equipped with the appropriate equipment, they can perform Maritime Patrol Surveillance (MPS), Intelligence Gathering, Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) and Anti-Surface Warfare (ASuW), targeting beyond the horizon, and others. They can also contribute to other missions such as SAR and aerial minelaying. Even other means that often appear to be more cost-effective substitutes for MPAs, such as Unmanned Aerial Systems - which are useful supplements for some cases which require persistent surveillance - are usually lagging behind in critical areas such as speed, the ability to transport simultaneously many different mission modules and / or weapons (especially in relation to medium / large MPAs) and, of course, in the absence of the human factor, the immediacy of the crisis and its intervention, is decisive in many missions of naval cooperation.
Three P-3B Orions of the Hellenic Navy in formation

In countries with a long coastline and hence with extensive maritime borders, such as Greece, the operational utility of MPA is obvious. Therefore, the availability of such means to the Hellenic Armed Forces should be considered as absolutely necessary for a number of national as well as international tasks.
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Monday, 7 May 2018

INFOGRAPHICS #33: The destroyers and frigates of the European Union in 2018

Written by D-Mitch

British and French destroyers in formation.
The following infographic depicts all The destroyers and frigates of the European Union in 2018, in a single image! Note though that the military forces of European Union are not integrated and thus there is not a single European Navy from the members of the European Union. However, in March 2017, the European Union approved a new military command center for foreign training missions after Britain dropped its opposition (which was the main obstacle), the latest step in EU efforts to integrate its military forces and defense industries.Therefore, the formation of a "EU Navy" is closer than ever. The EU major surface combatant fleet consists of 115 frigates and destroyers of which 29 are anti-aircraft warfare (AAW) warships and the rest 86 are general purpose (GP) and anti-submarine warfare (ASW) warships (SSBN)! There are 31 classes in commission (some of them are actually are variants of main classes such as the Karel Doorman or O.H. Perry). The major contributor to the EU naval fleet (till today at least) is the United Kingdom (UK) with 19 major surface combatants. France and Italy have just one less ship in their fleets, while Greece counts 13 ships with Spain and Germany 11 each. UK has six (6) AAW destroyers in commission, Spain five (5) and France and Italy four (4) each. Note that the Danish opt-out from EU defence cooperation and the UK will leave the EU on March 29, 2019. Moreover, countries such as Romania and Bulgaria have warships with limited armament; especially the two Type 22 frigates could be characterized as large offshore patrol vessels as they lack any missile system.

The destroyers and frigates of the European Union in 2018. For a high resolution image click here.
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Sunday, 6 May 2018

INFOGRAPHICS #32: The submarines of the European Union in 2018

Written by D-Mitch 

Greek HS Poseidon (Type 209), Portuguese NRP Tridente (Type 214)
and German U33 (Type 212) submarines during the
Exercise
NOBLE JUSTIFICATION 2014
This is another article about submarines. This time, I depict all The submarines of the European Union in 2018, in a single image! After the recent graphics, where all the submarine classes of China, United States of America and Russia are illustrated in single images, I thought it was a good idea to present the whole (honestly impressive) undersea fleet of the European Union. Note though that the military forces of European Union are not integrated and thus there is not a single European Navy from the members of the European Union. However, in March 2017, the European Union approved a new military command center for foreign training missions after Britain dropped its opposition (which was the main obstacle), the latest step in EU efforts to integrate its military forces and defense industries.Therefore, the formation of a "EU Navy" is closer than ever. The EU submarine fleet consists of 65 boats of which eight (8) are nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines (SSBN), 13 nuclear-powered attack submarines, 44 diesel-electric submarines (SSK) of which SSK the 22 are equipped with air-independent propulsion system (AIP). There 21 classes in commission (some of them are actually are variants of basic submarine types such as Type 214 and Type 212). Only two countries, United Kingdom (UK) and France operate nuclear-powered submarines while there are five countries that operate submarines equipped with Air-Independent Propulsion (AIP). The UK has by far the largest submarines among all the European countries with its Vanguard class SSBN being 150 meters in length and displacing less than 16,000 tons. Romania actually has no submarine as its sole submarine, Delfinul, has been inactive since 1995. The two countries with the most numerous submarine fleets in their Navy, are the UK and Greece (each has 11 boats in commission) however the former has all its submarines nuclear-powered. The UK will leave the EU on March 29, 2019.

The submarines of the European Union in 2018. For a high resolution image click here.
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Sunday, 22 April 2018

INFOGRAPHICS #31: The People's Liberation Army Navy submarines in 2018

Written by D-Mitch 

Jin class ballistic missile submarine of the PLA Navy
In the following infographic, The People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) submarines in 2018, I depict all the submarines that are currently in commission with the PLA Navy (as of April 1, 2018). Currently, the PLA Navy (PLAN; Chinese: 中国人民解放军海军), operates a large number of nuclear-powered and diesel electric submarines. The Chinese ballistic missile submarine (SSBN) fleet  consists of  at least five (5) Jin class (09IV/09IVA, from now on 094/04A) SSBN  vessels (other sources mention six boats already in the class) and one Xia class (Type 092) SSBN (other sources report also a sub-variant, the Type 092G, consisting of a pair of boats) and perhaps one boat of the third generation of Chinese SSBN, the lead ship of the Type 096 SSBN (NATO:Tang-class). Therefore the total number of boats is the minimum six boats and maximum ten boats! Moreover, China operates at least four or five variants of the Type 093 (Shang class) nuclear-powered attack submarines (SSN) according to the latest reports; the initial pair of Type 093 with the old sail, the Type 093A with the new sail, the Type 093B with the small narrow hump located behind the sail, the Type 093B1 with the wider and more smooth hump and the Type 093B2 with the even smoother hump and shorter in height. The last variant could be though the Type 095 class as it is rumored that China has put in service the third generation of Chinese SSNs; the first boat of the new Type 095 SSN, and possibly one more boat already has been commissioned. In service there are also three (3) Type 091 (Han class) SSN boats, the first generation of Chinese SSNs. Therefore the number of Chinese SSNs is at least 13-14 boats, if we assume at least a pair for each variant plus the old Type 091s, either just eight (8) boats if we assume there is only one boat for each variant except the Type 091s (which is unlikely to be the case), or the real number is even bigger with the Type 095s a completely new variant in addition to the existing five Type 093 variants!

Type 093s. Source: dafeng cao
Two different Type 094 SSBN variants
The active diesel electric submarine (SSK) fleet consists of approximately 58 boats in active service! About 18 Type 039A/039B/039C SSK (Yuan class) boats (other sources mention 12 Type 039B/C boats and two other vessels in sea trials) and 13 Type 039/039G SSK boats (other sources mention 16 boats in the class). Furthermore, the Chinese Navy operates 12 Kilo class SSK, five (5) Type 035B (Ming class) SSK and about nine Type 035G old SSKs, the remaining of total 12 boats completed of which one was lost and two were transferred to Bangladesh. It is not known if they are still in active service. China operates also a sole boat of the Type 032 class (Qing-class), a diesel-electric submarine currently as a testbed in PLAN. It is said to be the world's largest conventional submarine, at a submerged displacement of 6,628 tonnes (!) and a length of about 93 meters. This impressive vessel is armed with a number of 533/650 mm torpedo tubes, 2-3 SLBM VLS in the conning tower and four (4) tube VLS for cruise/ASW/AShM missiles in the forward section! The submarine tests new technologies such as torpedoes, compartments for special forces, underwater unmanned vehicles, new missiles, and others. Take into account please that the sources vary a lot on the amounts of boats in each class and moreover on the pennant numbers of the boats (for example Wiki reports the same pennant numbers for different classes of vessels). Moreover, the new classes are illustrated according to the latest artist's impressions as well as the few existent photos.

The People's Liberation Army Navy submarines in 2018 (v.II). For a high resolution image click here.

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Wednesday, 18 April 2018

INFOGRAPHICS #30: The Russian Navy submarines in 2018

Written by D-Mitch 

Dmitriy Donskoy, the last of the Typhoon class undersea giants...
In the following infographic, The Russian Navy submarines in 2018, I depict all the submarines that are currently in commission with the Russian Navy (as of April 1, 2018). Currently, the Russian Navy (Russian: Военно-морской Флот Российской Федерации (ВМФ России), lit. Military-Maritime Fleet of the Russian Federation) operates an impressive number of powerful nuclear-powered and diesel electric submarines,. The Russian ballistic missile submarine (SSBN) fleet  consists of  four (4) Borei class SSBN (the fourth vessel and lead ship of the fifth generation Borei II-class, Knyaz Vladimir, is scheduled to enter service this year), six (6) Delta IV class SSBN, one recently overhauled Delta III class SSBN (Ryazan) and the last (and upgraded) boat of the largest ever built submarine class, the Typhoon class Dmitriy Donskoy (TK-208). Moreover, Russia operates eight (8) Oscar II class guided missile submarines (SSGN), 11 Akula I/II/III class nuclear-powered attack submarines (SSN) plus one more boat (Nerpa) which has leased to India from 2012 for 10 years (Chakra), one Yasen class SSN while one more, K-561 Kazan, is about to be commissioned this year, three (3) Victor III class boats and four (4) Sierra I/II class boats. The active diesel electric submarine fleet consists of 21 boats, all of them except one boat (Lada class B-585 Sankt Peterburg) belong to the Kilo/Improved Kilo class attack submarines. The Russian Navy maintains also a significant amount of special purpose submarines including two nuclear-powered modified Delta III/IV boats (they operate as motherships for mini submarines, for a combination of oceanographic research, search and rescue, and underwater intelligence-gathering) as well as the 90 (?) -meter Sarov and the nuclear-powered AS-12, known also as Losharik. It should be mentioned that many boats are still inactive or in modernization overhaul, so for some of them their status is unclear.

The Russian Navy submarines in 2018. For a high resolution image click here.
I would like to thank a lot my friend Artjom H for his great help, and specifically for the provision of accurate information about the number of boats and their current status in service with the Russian Navy as well as for his (really impressive) patience answering all my questions!
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Wednesday, 11 April 2018

INFOGRAPHICS #29: The United States Navy submarines in 2018

Written by D-Mitch

Ohio class SSBN of the United States Navy
In the following infographic, The United States Navy submarines in 2018, I depict all the submarines that are currently in active service with the United States Navy (as of April 1, 2018). Currently, the United States Navy operates a massive amount of powerful nuclear-powered submarines, consisting of 14 Ohio class ballistic missile submarines (SSBN), four (4) Ohio class (modified) guided missile submarines (SSGN), three (3) Seawolf class nuclear-powered attack submarines (SSN) (including the modified USS Jimmy Carter SSN-23), 15 Virginia class SSN while one more, the USS Indiana SSN-789 is about to join the fleet, 22 Improved Los Angeles class SSN, and 12 Los Angeles class SSN. Of the Los Angeles class submarines, three (3) are about to decommissioned in the near future (USS Buffalo (SSN-715), USS Olympia (SSN-717) and USS Jacksonville (SSN-699)). There will be only one vessel from the Los Angeles class Flight I & II in active service for limited time, which is the USS Bremerton (SSN-698). This year, two more Virginia class SSN are scheduled to join the fleet, the USS South Dakota (SSN-790) and USS Delaware (SSN-791). These two vessels will be the last of the Block III while a new Block IV that will consist of ten (10) boats is under construction. It should be mentioned that all the boats are nuclear-powered.

The United States Navy submarines in 2018. For a high resolution image click here.
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Tuesday, 3 April 2018

Radiated Noise Signature of Modern Diesel Submarines

Written by George Papangelopoulos
Japanese Navy Oyashio class SSK performing an
emergency main ballast blow maneuver. Photo: JMSDF
One of the best-kept secrets of submarine manufacturers and operators is the level of their subs’ signatures. As a result, related official published and open source data is mostly limited to general estimations of outdated designs from the Cold War era. The key signatures of a conventional submarine include its radiated noise, its target echo strength, its magnetic characteristics and its snort mast’s radar cross section and radiated heat. As new and more sophisticated naval mine detonators are developed, electric signatures (UEP, ELFE) are added to this list. The present article focuses on the radiated noise of modern diesel-electric submarines (SSKs), in an effort to shed some light on this interesting and highly classified subject. 

Italian Sauro class submarine emerging next to a Durand de la Penne class destroyer
Radiated noise is the total noise emitted by a submarine and can be received by hostile passive sonars. It should not be confused with sonar self-noise, although in most cases both are caused by the same sources. For example, flow noise can be an important contributor to the sonar self-noise even at low speeds, but it is only at high speeds that it becomes a significant contributor to radiated noise. 

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Sunday, 1 April 2018

Inverted-Bow Warships Back in the Aegean Sea?

Written by D-Mitch

The legendary WWI era Georgios Averof armored cruiser of the
Hellenic Navy featured an inverted bow. It is now a museum ship.
This is the introduction to an article I wrote for the well-known Navy Recognition, one of the most popular online media covering Naval Forces, Defense Industry, Naval Technology and Maritime Security. The article titled "Inverted-Bow Warships Back in the Aegean Sea? " looks at the potential return of "inverted bow warships" in the Aegean sea as the Hellenic Navy is reportedly looking closely at the  French Navy's future FTI (Frégate de Taille Intermédiaire or mid-size frigate) Belh@rra, a next generation frigate designed by French shipbuilder Naval Group. Naval Group has named its new frigate Belh@rra in reference to Europe’s only giant wave: the Belh@rra. The first “a” transformed into an @ makes reference to the highly digital nature of the frigate proposed by Naval Group! Enjoy my (long) take on the design and features of this new stealth powerful front-line digital frigate here!

Infographic of the Belh@rra frigate. The inverted bow it is her distinctive characteristic! High resolution image here.
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Tuesday, 27 March 2018

A Kiel International Seapower Symposium experience!

Written by D-Mitch

Some days ago, I received an invitation to the Kiel International Seapower Symposium 2018 (KISS18), titled "Allied Maritime Strategy – A Theory for Success", the second of the Kiel Seapower Series international symposiums, which is organized by the Center for Maritime Strategy and Security, of the Institute for Security Policy, Kiel University (ISPK) with support from the Center for Naval Analyses (CNA), Arlington, Virginia, U.S.A. The invitation from the Head of the Center, Dr. Sebastian Bruns, brought me back good memories from the KISS'17, the first of the Kiel Seapower Series international symposiums, which I had the great privilege to attend.

The symposium venue at the historical Hotel Kieler Yacht Club
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Saturday, 17 March 2018

FLEETS #20: The German Federal Navy in 1960

The destroyer Zerstörer 2 (D 171)
U-Boot Hecht (S 171, ex U 2367)
The German Navy was originally known as the Bundesmarine ("Federal Navy") from 1956 until 1995 when Deutsche Marine ("German Navy") became the official name with respect to the 1990 incorporation of the East German Volksmarine ("People's Navy"). The following graph includes includes all ships which were in service with the West Germany's Navy on July 1st, 1960. I would like to mention here that the original source of the graphs is not known; the graph was posted by the reddit user J4yJ4m on WarshipP0rn.

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Thursday, 1 March 2018

INFOGRAPHICS #28: The attack submarines of the Mediterranean in 2018

Written  by D-Mitch

In the following infographic, named The Attack Submarines of the Mediterranean in 2018, I depict all the attack submarines that are in active service in the Mediterranean Sea right now (and will continue to be part of their Navies until the end of 2018). Please note that in comparison with the previous graphs about The Attack Submarines of Europe in 2017 (updated for 2018) and The Attack Submarines of Latin America in 2018, there are nuclear-powered  submarines (SSN) in the region, and specifically only France has that type in its inventory. There are also navies that have submarine-launched cruise missile capability which belong to Algeria (Kilo class with Club-S) and Israel (Dolphin I/II class with Popeye Turbo). Moreover, there are three countries in the region with submarines in their inventories equipped with Air-Independent Propulsion (AIP) system; Greece (five in its inventory), Italy (four in its inventory) and Israel (two in active service, one more to be commissioned). It should be mentioned also that from the 21 the countries with coastlines on the Mediterranean Sea, only seven navies (7) have submarines in their fleet. Specifically, Turkey has the most numerous fleet but France has all its submarines nuclear-powered while Greece has five (5) of its eleven (11) submarines (only one boat less than Turkey) equipped with AIP. Furthermore, Egypt, has in its inventory the longest submarines in the region (Romeo class: 76.6 meters length) and the oldest as well and Algeria the largest ones (Kilo class: approximately 3,200 tons submerged).

The Attack Submarines of the Mediterranean in 2018. For a high resolution image click here.
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Monday, 26 February 2018

INFOGRAPHICS #27: The attack submarines of Latin America in 2018

Written  by D-Mitch

In the following infographic, named The Attack Submarines of Latin America in 2018, I depict all the attack submarines that are in active service in Latin America right now (and will continue to be part of their Navies until the end of 2018). Please note that in comparison with the previous graph about The Attack Submarines of Europe in 2017 (updated for 2018), there is no nuclear-powered  submarine (SSN) in any Navy (at least until Brazil commissions its first vessel after 2020), neither there is a submarine equipped with Air-Independent Propulsion (AIP) system (the Chilean Scoprene class submarines are fitted but not with the system and will receive it in a future refit). It should be mentioned also that from the 21 countries of Latin America, only seven navies (7) have submarines in their fleet; Peru has the most numerous fleet but Brazil and Chile the most modern submarine fleets in the region. Moreover, the 92% of the Latin American submarines are German-built (!). Also, Argentina, while it has in its inventory the largest submarine in the region (TR1700 class: 67 meters length and 2,100t displacement), none of its submarines is in active service.

The Attack Submarines of Latin America in 2018. For a high resolution image click here.
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