Tuesday 24 June 2014

Dogan, Ruzgar and Yildiz class fast attack craft of the Turkish Navy

Written by D-Mitch

P340 Dogan, Dogan class
The Turkish Navy nowadays (2015) has a fleet of 19  Fast Attack Craft (FAC), separated into four classes, the Kilic, Dogan, Ruzgar and Yildiz class. The last three and older classes are of same design and they are sharing similar technical characteristics and equipment among them. The boats were all manufactured in Turkey with the exception of the Dogan. The newest Kilic class will be analyzed in another article. The Dogan class is the oldest of the three classes as the boats have been built in the period 1976 to 1980. The vessels have a full displacement of 440 tons, a length of 58 meters and a very high speed of 38 knots. The vessels of Ruzgar class were built in the period 1984-1988 and they have a slightly shorter length (57 meters) and a displacement of 410tons. Sometimes the boats of Ruzgar class are considered as a sub-class of Dogan class or even belonging in the Dogan class. The reduced weight of Ruzgar class gives them also a greater speed of 41 (!) knots. The vessels of Yildiz class were built in the period 1994-1995 and they have similar features as those of Dogan class. The crew in the classes consists of around 40-45 people including 6 officers.

Modified photo of a Dogan class missile boat. For a high resolution image click here.
Harpoon missile. Photo: Boeing
Quadruple Harpoon launchers
The armament is the same in all three classes and consists of α medium caliber gun, anti-ship missile launchers and a twin gun gun turret with the main task to intercept incoming missiles and enemy aircrafts. Each vessel may carry up to eight anti-ship missiles Boeing RGM-84A Harpoon surface-to-surface missiles (SSM) in two quadruple launchers Mk141 on the missile deck (however the vessels have never been seen carrying more than six canisters). These anti-ship missiles carry a 221 kg warhead in a maximum range of 124 km and with a subsonic speed that approaches the 860km/h.

Modified photo of a Yildiz class missile boat. For a high resolution image click here.
GDM-A Twin Mounting
OTO Melara Compact 3in gun
The OTO Melara Compact (no more in production) naval gun of 3 inches (76mm) is installed on the bow deck. The gun has excellent performance in any kind of role, such as air-defence, anti-surface, anti-missile and shore bombardment role. It can hit air and surface targets at a distance of 4 km (at 85 degrees) and 16 km (effective 8 km) respectively with a rate of fire 85 (100 rounds per minute with a retrofit kit) and weight of shell greater than 6 kg. There are 85 ready rounds on the mount. The GDM-A Twin Mounting naval  turret with two Oerlikon KDC 35mm guns in dual role (Oerlikon Contraves AG changed its name to Rheinmetall Air Defence AG as of January 1st 2009) is installed at the aft deck. This system performs as an anti-aircraft and anti-missile weapon system having a high rate of fire as each barrel can fire 550 rounds per minute with a range for air targets approaching the 5,000 meters while for surface targets beyond 8,000 meters.
P346 Girbet, Ruzgar class. Photo: Jorge Guerra Moreno, 2006
The armament completes two M2 12.7mm heavy machine guns, one at each side of the main mast, and two Raytheon FIM-92 Stinger mounts (one on Dogan/Ruzgar classes) amidships for point defense. The Stinger missile carries a high explosive annular blast fragmentation 3kg warhead in a range (effective) of more than 8 km.

Stinger SAM launch from a
Dogan/Ruzgar class missile boat.
Stinger SAM launch from a
Yildiz class missile boat.

P-347 Firtina, Ruzgar classFACM
Impressive photo of a Yildiz FACM

The radar antenna system.
Photo: Thales
An example of how the system operates
The Dogan and Ruzgar classes have almost identical electronic equipment. The vessels have a BAE Systems WM28/41 multi-channel fire-control system that uses a combined radar antenna system. It is designed to provide continuous air and surface warning, navigation aid, combat information, target designation and weapon control. The mini combat system is a fast reacting system, including certain data handling facilities which are of great importance during operations in a multi-target environment. Its high-quality radar, provided with ECCM features, guarantees target detection and engagement at maximum weapon range.

Dogan class fast attack craft
Ruzgar class fast attack craft
Yildiz class fast attack craft

SCOUT Mk2 LPI radar
Ruzgar class FACM equipped with
the SUSIE-1 ESM. Photo: turkishnavy.net
The Dogan class vessels have the Thales SCOUT Mk2 (replaced the Decca navigation radars in the 2000s), a Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) short-to-medium range surface surveillance and tactical navigation radar. Scout can be operated as a stand-alone mobile system for flexible responsiveness. Additionally, the system can be operated remotely (radio or line connection). It is an all-weather fully solid-state system of high reliability operating in X-band radar feauturing Frequency Modulation Continuous Wave (FMCW) and therefore has an extremely low output power which makes the system ideal for cover operations in hostile environments where radar silence is required and thus its transmissions cannot be detected by ESM systems or radar warning receivers. SCOUT Mk2 outstandingly detects targets in adverse sea clutter conditions, thanks to its very small range cell size. The system is also very suitable for coastal surveillance. The range of the radar exceeds the 44km. The Ruzgar class vessels have still the Decca 1226 navigation radar.

Modified photo of a Ruzgar class missile boat. For a high resolution image click here.
LIOD Mk2. Photo: Thales
LIOD Mk1. Photo: Thales
Both Ruzgar and Dogan classes are equipped with a Thales LIOD Mk2 (the Dogan class boats received the system during their mid-life modernization program in early 2000’s and replaced the older LIOD Mk1)  electro-optical targeting and acquisition sensor system. The LIOD sensor is for automatic, optronic tracking of air, for surface targets and against asymmetric tactics such as piracy and insurgency. The basic sensor set consists of TV and IR cameras in combination with an eye-safe laser range-finder. It is a passive sensor, which are difficult to detect and completely insensitive to ECM. In the electronic equipment there is also an electronic warfare suite SUSIE- 1. The boats of Dogan class have been upgraded with the installation of the Combat Management System (CMS) TACTICOS while the sub-class Ruzgar has the STACOS SEWACO (other sources report that they have been also retrofitted with TACTICOS). The Electronic Support Measures in the Dogan class include the Thales/Mikes ELDES-21 (replaced the older SUSIE-1), while the Ruzgar class have the ASESLAN ARES-2N (replaced the old SUSIE-1)

Dogan, lead ship of the Dogan class FACM, in an exercise

Mk137 launcher of Mk36 SRBOC
Mk36 SRBOC launch
All three classes are equipped with the BAE Systems Mk 36 Super Rapid Bloom Offboard Countermeasures (SRBOC) Chaff and Decoy Launching System.This  is a shipboard, deck-mounted, 6-barreled 130mm mortar-type array that launches type-specific countermeasures against a variety of threats. Following launch and dispersion, Mk36 SRBOC chaff and infrared countermeasures are designed to lure hostile missiles away from ships under attack by creating false target sets. The Mk36 SRBOC launching system is controlled from the ship’s combat management system (see last paragraph), and it is dependent on information provided by the ship’s detection and threat analysis equipment. The Mk36 SRBOC consists of the Mk137 launcher, firing stations at the bridge and CIC, the Mk160 power supply, Mk5 Mod2 or Mod4 Ready Service Lockers (RSLs), and a selection of munitions. Each vessel has two Mk137 decoy launchers.

The vessels in the three classes
Plessey AWS-6 radar
TMX-CW fire control system
The vessels of the Yildiz class are equipped with a Plessey AWS-6 Dolphin air and surface search radar, a Contraves TMX-CW fire control system, a Thales LIOD Mk2 electro-optical targeting and acquisition sensor system and a Kelvin Hughes KH1007 navigation radar. The AWS-6 Dolphin radar has an instrumented range (Surveillance Mode Performance) of 180km while the detection range exceeds the 110km (55km in the Defence Mode Performance). The track capacity is 200 air and sea targets. The TMX-CW is an X-band fire control radar that has a maximum tracking range of about 70km.

Modernized Dogan class FACM with new ESM and SCOUT radars

Target Designation Sight (TDS)
Mk137 SRBOC launcher
The combat management system is TACTICOS of Thales. In the equipment of all classes is included a Target Designation Sight (TDS) that provides means for optical investigation, target designation and weapon firing. The TDS is equipped with binoculars and the latest version includes a Laser Range Finder. Bearing and elevation data are fed into the CMS system but the TDS can also be used for emergency control of a gun or CIWS system. The importance of the function of the TDS is re-emphasised against asymmetric tactics such as piracy and insurgency. Also Yildiz class features Cutlass 242 ESM (Cutlass B1) which is designed for operation in very dense signal environments; the systems receive signals in the 1 to 18 GHz frequency range, measure their parameters, compare these with those in a pre-programmed radar library and display the information within 1 second. In the equipment of the boats are also included Link 11 and Mk 36 SRBOC decoy launchers. The purpose of the Mk36 system is to confuse hostile missile guidance and fire control systems by creating false signals. The launching system is controlled from the Combat Information Center and is dependent on information provided by the detection and threat analysis equipment on the ship. The Mk36 consists of the Mk137 launchers, the Mk158 Mods 1 and 2 master launcher control, the Mk164 Mods 1 and 2 bridge launcher control, the Mk160 Mod 1 power supply, the Mk5 Mod 2 or Mk6 Mod 0 ready service lockers, and a range of munitions. Each Mk 137 launcher has six 130-mm fixed tubes arranged in two parallel rows at angles of 45 and 60 degrees. The firing circuits employ electromagnetic induction to initiate the propelling charges in the cartridges. Near each launcher is a deck locker with up to 20 Mk5 or 35 Mk6 rounds for quick reload.

P-345 Poyraz of the Ruzgar class with six (6) Harpoon SSM


No comments:

Post a Comment