Translate in your language!

Tuesday 30 December 2014

INFOGRAPHICS #9: United States Navy capital ships 1861-1945

The following image created by Donn Thorson depicts all the classes of U.S. Navy capital ships from 1861 to 1945 which includes monitors, pre-dreadnoughts, dreadnoughts and battleships. For all the classes, the author reports the vessels that were in each class, the general characteristics and the main armament. Other illustrations related to U.S. Navy you can find here.

Click to enlarge and save the image to view the details: US Navy Capital Ships. In high resolution here
Read More ->>

Thursday 25 December 2014

NAVAL FORCES #4: The world's most successful conventional submarines after WWII

Written by D-Mitch

Improved Kilo class submarine
Two types of conventional submarines (SSK) of different origin, the German Type 209 and the Russian Kilo (Project 877/636), are the most successful export diesel-electric submarine designs in the world today. The Kilo class is the NATO reporting name for the Russian Project 877 Paltus and the Improved Kilo for the Project 636 Varshavyanka. Kilo class has been successfully exported to eight (8) countries, with 68 submarines been built and commissioned between 1981 and 2018 while there are under construction seven (7) Improved Kilo submarines, six (6) for Russia and one (1) for Algeria. With the delivery of these submarines the total number of Kilo class will increase to 75. Of the total 30 Kilo class submarines of Russian Navy, about 20-22 are in operational status while two (2) have been retired and sold for scrap. There are several Russian Kilo submarines in reserve either their status is unknown; the sole Romanian is in reserve from the '90s also. The Indian Sindhurakshak was destroyed in 2013 after an explosion and fire on board suspected to have occurred from the munitions onboard - killing 18 people at the Indian Navy's dockyard at Mumbai Port.

Read More ->>

Saturday 20 December 2014

FLEETS #7: Royal Netherlands Navy, Royal Norwegian Navy and Italian Navy today

Written by D-Mitch

This is the fifth article about various countries' navies today. In these articles, I briefly describe a country's naval fleet by reporting the ships in each type/category of warships and by providing a nice image where all the types of warships are illustrated and the units of its class are reported. I include the vessels that will enter in service this year and I have excluded those that are about to be decommissioned. I deliberately excluded many classes of auxiliary ships; those that they have "0" defence capacity and those that have secondary roles such as hydrographic survey ships, tugs, depollution vessels and training ships.

Read More ->>

Wednesday 17 December 2014

Hellenic Navy 1940-2016

Written by D-Mitch

Hellenic Navy in WWII

Hellenic Navy in 1940 in the beginning of the Greco-Italian War (War of' '40/Battle of Greece), the conflict that marked the beginning of the Balkans campaign of World War II, it consisted of the following warships:
- 1 armored cruiser (Averof); popularly known as a battleship
- 1 pre-dreadnought battleship (Kilkis) partly disarmed and operating as naval AA artillery
- 10 destroyers (Vasileus Georgios, Vasilissa Olga, Psara, Spetsai, Hydra, Kountouriotis, Leon, Panthir, Aetos, Ierax)
- 6 submarines (Proteus, Glaukos, Triton, Nireus, Katsonis, Papanikolis)
- 13 torpedo boats (Thyella, Sfendoni, Niki, Aspis, Prousa, Pergamos, Kyzikos, Kios, Kydoniai, Aigli, Akyoni, Arethousa, Doris)
- 4 minesweepers (Aliakmon, Aksios, Nestos, Strymon)
- 1 repair ship (Hephaestus)
The three battleships of Hellenic Navy, Georgios Averof, Kilkis and Lemnos.
Read More ->>

Sunday 7 December 2014

NAVAL FORCES #3: Latin America Naval Forces

Written by D-Mitch

Latin America
The following image depicts the most important naval forces by each sovereign  state of Latin America region. Similarly with my previous Naval Forces posts, I include also the classes and not just quantities.  Therefore, I made it easier for the reader to realize where these numbers came from and the most important to check and to understand why a class belongs to a specific category of warships. Before starting completing this large table, I used almost the same criteria I used for the EU Naval Forces table that helped me to categorize better each class and to make a fair allocation of the warships that each LA country has in each type of warships. I avoided each country's system of pennant numbers such as -D- for Argentinian Almirante Brown class that allocates the class to destroyer type despite the non destroyer's capabilities and the small size of the class. I tried to avoid also the unfair categorization of warships in a higher position in the hierarchy such as the Pauk or various fast attack crafts to corvettes without having missile launch capability or their capabilities are inferior to a modern corvette respectively. I did my best to avoid all these unfair classifications and based on capabilities, size and armament I divided all the classes (in brackets) except of the auxiliary ships in eleven (11) main types/categories. I have excluded types of warships such as Large Helicopter Carriers (LHD, LHA, LPH) and Ballistic Missile Submarines (SSBN) as there is no country operating these types in Latin America. I have added though the Cruisers (CLM, CG, CGN). Obsolete ships or ships their status is unknown, they have been excluded (mainly Mexican and Cuban ships).

Read More ->>

Saturday 6 December 2014

PHOTO GALLERY #3: Papanikolis, submarine of the Hellenic Navy

Papanikolis, Type 214 submarine of Hellenic Navy
Yesterday, Friday, December 5, I had the opportunity to visit again the fast attack craft Daniolos P-68 of the Roussen class, the most modern surface combatants in service with Hellenic Navy, and the submarine Papanikolis. S120 Papanikolis, the first vessel of the Papanikolis class (Type 214 designation for the Hellenic Navy; Papaniolis is also the first Type 124 in the world), the most advanced boat currently in service with Hellenic Navy and one of the most advanced submarines in this category (diesel-electric/conventional submarine). The boats were opened to the public at Piraeus harbor due to the celebration of Saint Nicholas, the patron of sailors and of the Hellenic Navy. In October, I had visited Daniolos (see Photo Gallery #1) so this time I spent mainly my visit on Papanikolis. The submarine honors Dimitrios Papanikolis (1790–1855), a naval hero of the Greek Revolution, famous for being the first to successfully employ a fireship to destroy an Ottoman ship of the line. Enjoy about 30 photos!

Read More ->>

Tuesday 2 December 2014

NAVAL FORCES #2: World's Aircraft Carriers and Helicopter Carriers

Written by D-Mitch

Similarly to my previous post, here I have included in one image all the aircraft carriers and large helicopter carriers/assault ships that are in active service, they are under construction or they undergoing sea trials. I have not included those ships that are under the phase of designation or that that have been planned.

World's aircraft carriers and helicopter carriers in 2014. In high resolution click here.

Read More ->>

Monday 1 December 2014

NAVAL FORCES #1: European Union Naval Forces

Written by D-Mitch

European Union
The following image depicts the most important naval forces by each member state of the European Union. I decided to not include only the quantities but also to include the classes. Therefore, I made it easier for the reader to realize where these numbers came from and the most important to check and to understand why a class belongs to a specific category of warships. Before starting completing this large table, I created some criteria that helped me to categorize better each class and to make a fair allocation of the warships that each EU country-member has in type of warships. I avoided each country's system of pennant numbers such as -D- for George Leygues class making them in that way to belong to destroyer type despite the non destroyer's capabilities and the small size of the class. I tried to avoid also the unfair categorization of warships in a higher position in the hierarchy such as the Pauk or Joao Coutinho class to corvettes without having missile launch capability while other larger ships such as those of Holland class are classified as oceanic patrol vessels. I tried to avoid all these unfair classifications and based on capabilities, size and armament I divided all the classes (in brackets) except of the auxiliary ships in twelve (12) main types/categories.

Read More ->>

Friday 21 November 2014

Comandanti class and Sirio class offshore patrol vessels of the Italian Navy

Written by D-Mitch

Comandanti class patrol vessel.
Photo: Marina Militare Italiana
Sirio class patrol vessel.
Photo: Marina Militare Italiana
The most modern offshore patrol vessels in service with Italian Navy (Marina Militare) are the ships of the Comandanti and Sirio classes, two classes of the same design that share some common equipment.  The four patrol vessels of the Comandanti class were built by Fincantieri and they were delivered to the Italian Navy the period 2002-2004. The program is also known as Nuove Unità Minori Combattenti (NUMC). The last vessel, the Foscari, was built with composite superstructure made off glass reinforced plastic instead of steel having in that way less mass and therefore resulting in reduced fuel consumption and improved life cycle of the ship. The two vessels of the Sirio class, also known as Nuove Unità di Pattugliamento d'Altura (NUPA), were commissioned in 2005. The NUPA program gives less emphasis on stealth characteristics, performance and equipment for operations in low intensity conflict environment such as NUMC program as the main mission of the Sirio class patrol vessels is to safeguard national interests in the fields of anti-pollution and rescue services. Therefore, among others, Sirio boats lack the main naval gun and the fire control system, they have less powerful engines and they have no hangar but only a flight deck. However the ships have all the provisions to be equipped as their older sisters. Both classes can various missions such as patrolling and surveillance at sea, control of maritime traffic and inspections, humanitarian relief operations, search and rescue operations, control of the maritime borders, protection of merchant shipping and fisheries, support operations and many more. 

Read More ->>

Friday 14 November 2014

Holland class offshore patrol vessels of the Royal Netherlands Navy

Written by D-Mitch

HNLMS Friesland. Photo: Neil Watkin
The Holland class is a class of four (4) offshore patrol vessels built by Damen Schelde Naval Shipbuilding for the Royal Netherlands Navy (Koninklijke Marine) and they were commissioned in the period 2012-2013. The ships are designed to reduced radar cross section (RDS) and they are painted are painted a new light blue-gray color to improve the camouflage effect. To optimize the seakeeping behavior of the vessels the hull has been stretched, and the bridge and superstructure are located relatively aftwards. Moreover, they are outfitted with ballistic features, blast resistant constructions, redundant and decentralized systems, a gas citadel, extensive fire fighting systems and additional measures to reduce the effects of flooding. Automation level for this vessel is high, and includes a shore support system, a shore management system, a calamity system, a warning system, an overview system and extensive subsystem automation. These patrol vessels are the first vessels of the Royal Netherlands Navy equipped with the Thales Integrated Sensor and Communication Systems (ISCS), an integrated mast module which integrates practically all radio frequency systems, radars as well as communication and optical sensors on board of the ship in one housing. These vessels are without question some of the most modern and well equipped class of offshore patrol vessels worldwide.

Read More ->>

Wednesday 12 November 2014

INFOGRAPHICS #8: Ohio class nuclear powered ballistic missile and guided missiles submarines of US Navy

Ohio class ballistic missile submarine
The Ohio class is a type of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines (SSBN) produced by United States (General Dynamics, Electric Boat) and operated by the United States Navy. These submarines are the largest submarines ever built for the Navy and they carry more missiles than any other ballistic submarine in the world (watch the following nice video). This force of ballistic missile submarines carry approximately about the half of the total inventory of the total US active inventory of strategic thermonuclear warheads. From the 18 submarines in the class, the first four (4) of them have been converted to guided (cruise) missile submarines (SSGN). Each ballistic missile submarine is armed with 24 Trident II D5 submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBM) with a range of about 11,300km (!) carrying up to 12 MIRVed W76 or W88 (300–475 kt TNT) nuclear warheads each . Each cruise missile submarine carry seven (7) cruise missiles in each cell of total 22 therefore a single submarine can carry maximum 154 (!) Tomahawk cruise missiles with either conventional or nuclear warheads, a complement of Harpoon anti-ship missiles to be fired through their torpedo tubes plus they are able to sustain more than 66 Special Operations Forces personnel. All the submarines are armed with four (4) 21in torpedo tubes for Mk48 heavyweight submarine-launched torpedoes designed to sink deep-diving nuclear-powered submarines and high-performance surface ships.
Read More ->>

Friday 7 November 2014

Karel Doorman (M) class frigates of the Portuguese Navy, Chilean Navy, Royal Netherlands Navy and Belgian Navy

Written by D-Mitch

Modernized frigate Van Spejik
Photo: Willem Harlaar
Frigate Bartolomeu_Dias
Photo: Jimmy C. Pan, US Navy
The Karel Doorman class is a class of eight (8) frigates built by Damen Schelde Naval Shipbuilding, the former Royal Schelde Dockyard, for the Royal Netherlands Navy (Koninklijke Marine) and they were commissioned in the period 1991-1995.  International interest in the M-frigates as well as changes in the Royal Netherlands Navy prompted the sale of two frigates each to Chile, Belgium and Portugal. Therefore, in 2004, Tjerk Hiddes and Abraham van der Hulst were sold to Chilean Navy (Armada de Chile) and renamed Almirante Riveros and Blanco Encalada respectively. In 2005, Karel Doorman and Willem van der Zaan were sold to Belgian Navy - Belgian Naval Component (Dutch: Marinecomponent, French: Composante marine, German: Marinekomponente) and renamed Leopold I and Louise-Marie respectively. The next year, Portuguese Navy (Marinha Portuguesa) purchased two vessels of the class, Van Nes and Van Galen which renamed Bartolomeu Dias and Francisco de Almeida respectively. The Dutch together with the Belgians decided to upgrade their frigates by rebuilding both hangar and helicopter deck to accommodate the NH-90 helicopter as well as to replace the forward mast for fitting a new phased array surface search radar and an electro-optical surveillance system. The Dutch and Belgian frigates followed also an extensive overhaul and Service Life Extension Programs (SLEP) to their equipment. These will be referred as the Karel Doorman Mod. (modernized) frigates to be distinguished from the non-modernized ones. Note that in 2018 the Portuguese Navy decided to modernize its two Karel Doorman class frigates (Mid-life update), the first frigate started modernization in 2018 and being completed by 2020, the second frigate will start modernizing in 2020 and will be completed by 2022.

Read More ->>

Tuesday 4 November 2014

INFOGRAPHICS #7: Los Angeles class nuclear powered fast attack submarines of US Navy

USS Key West, Flight II Los Angeles class submarine of US Navy
Los Angeles-class (SSN688) submarines form the backbone of the U.S. Navy's nuclear-powered attack submarine fleet; it is the class that has more operating nuclear submarines than any other in the world. Their primary missions are to hunt enemy submarines and surface ships, launch cruise-missile strikes on land-based targets and gather intelligence. The boats were designed by General Dynamics Electric Boat and they are divided in three flights (Flight I, II and III) based on improvements in their design and equipment such as electronics, armament and characteristics. The Flight I consists of 31 submarines (only 11 are active, in commission), the Flight II have a 12 Vertical Launch Tubes (VLS) for Tomahawk missiles and it consists of 8 submarines (all in active service) and the final Flight III consists of 23 submarines of which only one has been retired. The final 23 submarines of the 62-ship class are known also as improved 688s (688i). These are quieter and they are equipped with more advanced electronics and sensors as well as retractable bow planes (and not on their sails like the other Flights) and hardened sails to break through ice during Arctic operations.
Read More ->>

Sunday 26 October 2014

PHOTO GALLERY #2: Pontos, submarine of the Hellenic Navy

S-119 Pontos, a Poseidon class submarine 
On October 24, I had the opportunity to visit the fast attack craft Daniolos P-68 (see previous post, Photo Gallery #1) of the Roussen class, the most modern class of surface combatants in service with Hellenic Navy, and the submarine Pontos S-119, the last of the Poseidon class (Type 209/1200). The boats were opened to the public at Piraeus harbor due to the forthcoming celebration of Ohi Day (anniversary of the "No") to commemorate the rejection by Greek Prime Minister Metaxas of the ultimatum made by Italian dictator Mussolini on October 28, 1940 during WWII. As I mentioned in my other post about Daniolos due to the bad weather there was almost no visitors, so the visit was like a "private tour" and I had a plenty of time to discuss with the crews and to take nice photos without people standing in front of the boats, sensors and weapon systems. Again, I would like to thank a lot the officers and the non-commissioned officers, they are real professionals, friendly, ready to explain everything in detail and with patience, they are men who love their boats and their work, they were simply GREAT! Enjoy the photos!

Read More ->>

Saturday 25 October 2014

PHOTO GALLERY #1: Daniolos, fast attack craft of the Hellenic Navy

Rainy day during my visit to Daniolos
Yesterday, Friday, October 24, I had the opportunity to visit the fast attack craft Daniolos P-68 of the Roussen class, the most modern surface combatants in service with Hellenic Navy, and the submarine Pontos S-119 of the Poseidon class (Type 209/1200). Because of the very bad weather the visit was like.. a private tour! The boats were opened to the public at Piraeus harbor due to the forthcoming celebration of Ohi Day (anniversary of the "No") to commemorate the rejection by Greek Prime Minister Metaxas of the ultimatum made by Italian dictator Mussolini on October 28, 1940 during WWII. To learn more about the equipment, the armament and the capabilities of Roussen class click here. I would like to thank a lot the officers and the non-commissioned officers who are real professionals, friendly, ready to explain everything in detail and with patience, they are men who love their boats and their work, they were GREAT! Enjoy the photos!

Read More ->>

Friday 24 October 2014

FLEETS #6 and HISTORY #1: Soviet Navy after WWII - A very unusual fleet!

Written by D-Mitch

Kuybyshev of Chapayev class cruisers at Sevastopol on Navy Day,
25 July 1954. On the background you can see Novorossiysk,
the former Italian battleship Giulio Cesare
The following image depicts the major surface combatants of Soviet Union some years after the end of World War II. Of the warships that are illustrated we can assume that the image presents the Soviet Union fleet in the beginning of the '50s, possibly 1950-2. Why "An unusual fleet"? Because this fleet, with the exception of some Soviet-built classes, it consists of Italian, German, Japanese and Finnish warships that were transferred to Soviet Union as war reparations! In order to describe better the situation of Soviet Navy after WWII towards the establishment of a naval superpower based on indigenous projects, I did not just upload the fleet-image as I did in the previous "Fleets" but I aimed to provide some details about the classes and the vessels of that time and especially their fate during their service under the Soviets. Thus, I have copied information related to the classes from wikipedia and I have slightly modified the text as my purpose in this article was not to make an analysis of a class or a vessel based on bibliography as I do in other naval analyses but to provide simple information about the Soviet naval vessels of the 1950s. I would like to mention also that most of the photos were obtained from the excellent

Read More ->>

Monday 20 October 2014

INFOGRAPHICS #6: American Civil War ironclads - Major combatants, cutaways and photos

USS Monitor
The American Civil War was fought from 1861 to 1865 between the United States of America, consisting of the Northern States and California (known as the North or Union), under President Abraham Lincoln and the Confederate States of America, consisting of the Southern States and Texas (known as the South or Confederacy), under President Jefferson Davis. Some of the vessels that are depicted on the images are either unique vessels such as USS Monitor or lead-ships of a class such as USS Passaic while there are different kinds of ironclads such as monitors, gunboats, riverboats, floating batteries screw steamers and others. The Battle of Hampton Roads (March 8–9, 1862) was the first battle between ironclad warships, i.e. the USS Monitor and the CSS Virginia. This naval battle was the most noted and arguably most important naval battle of the American Civil War from the standpoint of the development of navies. Another first during this war, was the loss of the USS Cairo, an ironclad gunboat that sunk by a naval mine, on 12 December 1862 in the Yazoo River. Some very good and rare photos from this war can be seen here, a large collection of photos collected by the Trans-Mississippi Theater Photo Archive.
Read More ->>

Thursday 16 October 2014

Machitis class patrol boats of the Hellenic Navy

 Written by D-Mitch

P-268 Aittitos of Machitis class. Photo: Hellenic Navy
Machitis class consists of four patrol boats in service with the navy of Greece, the Hellenic Navy. The design is by Hellenic Shipyards thus the origin of designation HSY-56A, an improved design of the previous HSY-56 which is based on the Danish Osprey-55 (both classes will  analyzed in a common article in the future). The boats of the class are the most modern patrol vessels of Hellenic Navy and some of the best equipped boats worldwide in this displacement and category, especially in the electronic equipment and the variety of sensors. The ships were built by Hellenic Shipyards and delivered to Hellenic Navy the period 2003-2005. The full displacement of the ships is close to 575tons, the length is approximately 56m, the maximum speed is about 23-24knots while the range is 2,500n.m. with the cruising speed of 15knots. The crew is 36 people (50 people max. according to Hellenic Shipyards) while each ship can carry additionally 21 fully equipped troops; usually Special Forces soldiers. Each vessel carries two Barracuda 7m Rigid Hulled Inflatable Boats (RHIB) that have a maximum speed of 60knots. Moreover, the ships have the capability to deposit mines from the two mine rails they have at the stern and thus to operate as small minelayers.

Read More ->>

Saturday 11 October 2014

INFOGRAPHICS #5: Astute class nuclear powered attack submarines of the Royal Navy

HMS Ambush during sea trials near Scotland.
Photo: Will Haigh
The Astute-class are the largest, most advanced and most powerful attack submarines ever operated by the Royal Navy, combining world leading sensors, design and weaponry in a versatile vessel. The following images depict the compartments and the general characteristics of the boat as well as its most important weapon systems and electronic equipment. The boats of the class are believed to be the world's most powerful nuclear attack submarines. The Sonar 2076 sonar suite has the processing power of 2,000 laptop computers while it has the world’s largest number of hydrophones (13,000!), providing the Royal Navy with the “biggest ears” of any sonar system in service today. This sonar is so sensitive that one lurking in the Solent would be able to detect a ship leaving New York harbour 3,500 miles across the Atlantic! In 2012, during simulated battles with the United States Navy's latest Virginia-class submarine USS New Mexico, it was reported that the Americans were "taken aback" by Astute's capabilities. Royal Navy Commander Ian Breckenridge was quoted saying: “Our sonar is fantastic and I have never before experienced holding a submarine at the range we were holding USS New Mexico. The Americans were utterly taken aback, blown away with what they were seeing.” Swiftsure and Trafalgar Update manager, Captain Ian Hughes said, "A good analogy for the performance of Sonar 2076 is that if the submarine was in Winchester it would be able to track a double decker bus going round Trafalgar Square" (a distance of about 60 miles). The boats are being constructed by BAE Systems Maritime – Submarines at Barrow-in-Furness. Two boats have been commissioned, the third one was launched recently while four more are under construction. See more here.
Read More ->>

Friday 10 October 2014

Meteoro class offshore patrol vessels of the Spanish Navy

Written by D-Mitch

Meteoro, lead ship of the class. Photo:
The Meteoro class BAM (Buque de Acción Marítima) are four multi-purpose offshore patrol vessels in service with Spanish Navy (Armada Española). The designation is Avante 3000 Patrol. The ships are the newest patrol vessles operated by Spanish Navy; they were built by Navantia at San Fernando / Puerto Real Shipyards and they were delivered to the Navy in 2009-2010. The home port of the ships is Las Palmas Naval Station (Canary Islands). The design is modular and thus the configuration depends on the mission. According to Navantia, the class is specially designed for the following missions: control of activities maritime areas, protection of merchant shipping, maritime search and rescue operations (SAR), surveillance and control of environmental legislation and pollution, surveillance and control of fishing, logistic and medical support to smaller ships, humanitarian relief operations, intelligence gathering, operations against the traffic of people and drug smuggling, control and neutralization of terrorist actions and pirate activities, inward and outward transport of Special Forces and naval presence.

Read More ->>

Wednesday 8 October 2014

Osman Gazi class landing ship / minelayer of the Turkish Navy

Written by D-Mitch

Osman Gazi landing/minelayer ship. Photo:
The Osman Gazi class landing ships consists of only one vessel in service, the Osman Gazi, which is the newest and largest active landing ship of the Turkish Navy (Turkish: Türk Donanması) at the moment (2014). It is worth mentioning that the design is completely indigenous. The second ship in the class, thee NL126 Orhan Gazi, was cancelled. The pennant number is NL-125; NL due to the two roles that the ships has, N stands for minelayer while L for landing ship. The Osman Gazi was launched in 1990 at the Taşkızak Naval Shipyard and it was commissioned in 1994. The ship followed an extensive modernization in the period 2010-2011 in Alaybey Shipyard, İzmir. The general characteristics of the ship, is a full displacement of about 3,775tons, a length of 105m, speed of 17 knots while the range is 4,000n.m. with the cruising speed of 15 knots.

Read More ->>

Wednesday 1 October 2014

Guaiqueri class offshore patrol boats of the Venezuelan Navy

Written by D-Mitch

PC23 Yekuana, third of the Guaiqueri class patrol vessels.
Photo: ventuari,
The Guaiqueri class of Venezuelan Navy (Bolivarian Armada of Venezuela), is a class of four modern offshore/ocean patrol vessels featuring stealth technology with reduced radar and infrared signatures and special design to minimize the propulsion system's noise emissions and vibrations. The designation is Avante 2200 and sometimes they are reported as POVZEE from the Spanish Patrullero Oceánico de Vigilancia de la Zona Económica Exclusiva. The vessels were built in Navantia shipyard in Cadiz city of Puerto Real, the period 2008-2010. The vessels' mission is monitoring and protection of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) to ensure national sovereignty and territorial integrity, protection of maritime traffic, defense of strategic interests, search and rescue, relief and other humanitarian units, detection of smuggling, drug trafficking and illegal immigration and monitoring and data collection of operational and environmental intelligence

Read More ->>

FLEETS #5: Royal Navy in WWI and WWII: classes, vessels and losses

In the following images they are depicted the most important classes of warships which were in service with the Royal Navy in World War I, all the vessels that were in service with Royal Navy in both World Wars and those were lost during these great wars. More posts will follow for your collection of current naval fleets but also of fleets from the past.

All the ships of Royal Navy in WWII (1939)
Click to enlarge and save the image to view the details - Royal Navy vessels in World War II. High resolution here. Image by Oscar Parkes for Daily Telegraph. They are included two of the Lion class battleships that never completed. Also notice two of the five King George V class battleships with the old names (Jellicoe, later Anson and Beatty, later Howe). Ships that their construction started after 1939 are not included such as the battleship HMS Vanguard.

Read More ->>

Saturday 27 September 2014

Almirante Padilla class light frigates of the Colombian Navy

Written by D-Mitch
Antioquia, third of the Almirante Padilla class light frigates
Photo: Armada Nacional de la República de Colombia
The main surface combatants of the Colombian Navy (Armada Nacional de la República de Colombia) are four (4) Almirante Padilla class light frigates/corvettes designed and built by Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft (HDW) the period 1983-1984 in Kiel of Germany. The designation of the class is Type FS 1500, a similar design which was obtained by the Malaysian Navy, the Kasturi class frigates that have different electronic equipment and weapon systems. The frigates followed an extensive modernization program in Colombia at Cotecmar shipyard, a program that included the propulsion system, the electronic equipment and the weapon systems. The program finished in 2014 with the completion of sea acceptance tests of the ships. The contract with the Colombian authorities was signed early 2009, with DCNS acting as prime contractor and Thales as the lead systems integrator for the combat system and communications suite.
Read More ->>

Monday 22 September 2014

INFOGRAPHICS #4: United States Navy battleships, destroyers and submarines

The following images (updated) are created by Steve Freeman (sfreeman421 for deviantart) and depict all the classes of battleships, destroyers and submarines that were/are in service with the United States Navy. Enjoy this great artwork!

US Navy Battleships. In high resolution here
Read More ->>

Saturday 20 September 2014

S148 class fast attack craft of the Hellenic Navy, Chilean Navy and Egyptian Navy

Written by D-Mitch
S148 class in service with Armada de Chile.
Photo: Armada de Chile
The S148 class is a type of Fast Attack Craft (FAC) built in 1972-1974 for the Bundesmarine (German Federal Navy) (later German Navy - Deutsche Marine) which serve today in the navies of Greece (Hellenic Navy), Chile (Armada de Chile) and Egypt (Egyptian Navy). The class is a design of Lürssen in Germany but some of them were built in France by Constructions Mécaniques de Normandie in Cherbourg (CMN) due to political reasons of that time as the initial plan was some of them to be purchased by Israeli Navy. In total 20 crafts were built and served with German Federal Navy of which six (6) were transferred to Greece the period 1994-1995 and 2000, six (6) to Chile the period 1997-1998 and five (5) to Egypt in 2002 while the remaining three (3) were scrapped. The class is the older class of FACs in service with the three navies and it is about to be decommissioned and to be replaced by modern vessels; currently in Hellenic Navy they serve three (3) boats which will be replaced after the commissioning of more of Roussen class FACs and in Chilean Navy (Armada de Chile) they serve two (2). It is not known the number of craft that serve with the Egyptian Navy but it is believed that serve around three (3) with plans the vessels to be replaced in the near future as well.

Read More ->>

Thursday 18 September 2014

INFOGRAPHICS #3: Ranks and insignia of NATO Navies

An image that depicts all the ranks and insignia used by the navy personnel, enlisted and officers, of the member countries of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).

Click to enlarge and save the image to view the details: naval ranks and insignia of NATO. For high resolution click here.

Read More ->>

Wednesday 17 September 2014

FLEETS #4: Italian Navy, German Navy, Russian Navy and Japanese Navy in WWII

The following images illustrate the most important classes of warships which were in service with the navies of Italy, Germany, Russia and Japan during the World War II. More posts will follow for your collection of current naval fleets but also of fleets from the past.

Italian Navy (Regia Marina) in  WWII

Click to enlarge and save the image to view the details - Italian Navy in WWII

Read More ->>

Formidable class frigates of the Republic of Singapore Navy

Written by D-Mitch

RSS Formidable leading vessel of the Formidable class frigates
Photo: Republic of Singapore Navy
The Formidable class frigates are multi-mission stealth frigates of the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN) or else Angkatan Laut Republik Singapura, which are quipped with state of the art weapons and electronics. DCNS was awarded in 2000 by the Republic of Singapore Ministry of Defence (MINDEF) to design and to build six frigates of the project Delta, a smaller derivative of La Fayette class of French Navy, but with much more advanced characteristics such as low radar cross-section, acoustic, infrared and electromagnetic signatures, better sea keeping qualities and increased endurance but also equipment and weapons. The agreement included a technology transfer after the construction of the first frigate at DCNS' Lorient yard in France while five more were built in Singapore by the Singapore Technology Marine (STM) at the Benoi shipyard. The first of the class, RSS Formidable was launched in 2004 and she was commissioned in 2007. All the ships were commissioned the period 2007-2009, they are the only frigates serving in RSS and they form the 185 Squadron. The frigates of the class, due to their advanced armament and electronics, are considered among the most advanced surface combatants in Southeast Asia!

Read More ->>

Sunday 7 September 2014

FLEETS #3: Royal Australian Navy, US Navy, Royal Navy and French Navy in WWII

The following images illustrate the most important classes of warships which were in service with the navies of Australia, United Kingdom, United States and France during the World War II. More posts will follow for your collection of current naval fleets but also of fleets from the past.

Royal Australian Navy in WWII

Click to enlarge and save the image to view the details - Australian Navy in WWII

Read More ->>

Saturday 30 August 2014

FLEETS #2: Italian Navy (Marina Militare Italiana) in 2014

A nice work that depicts all the Italian Navy warships that are in service by the members of Enrr, Little Bird, Lazer_one, MConrads and MichoshiK.

Save the image to view the details: Italian Navy in 2014
Read More ->>

INFOGRAPHICS #2: Virginia class nuclear powered fast attack submarines of US Navy

USS Virginia (SSN-774)
Virginia class submarines are the latest nuclear attack submarines operated by US Navy. They were conceived as a less expensive alternative to the Seawolf class attack submarines and they are planned to replace the older of the Los Angeles-class submarines. Virginia-class submarines will be acquired through 2043, and are expected to remain in service past 2060. Based on recent updates to the designs, some of the Virginia-class submarines are expected to still be in service in 2070. Below a great work by Stephen Rountree for the U.S. Navy, General Dynamics Electric Boat Corporation and Newport News Shipbuilding. At the left, a photo of the lead ship of the class, USS Virginia (SSN-774), while she returns to the General Dynamics Electric Boat shipyard following the successful completion of its first voyage in open seas called "alpha" sea trials, in July, 2004.

Read More ->>

Wednesday 27 August 2014

Cyclone class patrol coastal boats of the United States Navy

Written by D-Mitch

Cyclone class patrol ship. Photo: U.S. Navy
The Cyclone class is a class of 14 patrol coastal boats (PC) built by Bollinger Shipyards and commissioned between 1994 and 2000. The PC hull/propulsion design is based on  the Vosper Thornycroft design-built fast attack craft of the Ramadan class constructed for Egypt (six units completed the period 1981-1982), Oman (four units completed the period 1982-1989) and Kenya (two units completed the period 1989) which was selected by US Navy. The mission of the ships is coastal patrol, interdiction surveillance and to provide full mission support for U.S. Navy SEALs and other special operations forces in shallow water environment. The Cyclone class Patrol Coastal (PC) are particularly suited for the maritime homeland security mission and have been employed in the past jointly with the U.S. Coast Guard to help protect United States' and their allies' coastline, ports and waterways from terrorist attack; in addition, multiple ships have been forward deployed to the Gulf Region in support of the war on terrorism and piracy in maritime security operations. USS Cyclone was the lead ship of the Navy's Cyclone class of patrol coastal boats. The ship was decommissioned and stricken from the Navy list on February 28, 2000, and was given to the US Coast Guard the next day. There, the Cyclone was re-commissioned as USCGC Cyclone (WPC-1). Serving in this role for another four years, the ship was finally transferred to the Republic of the Philippines on March 8, 2004, where the Cyclone entered naval service as BRP Mariano Alvarez (PS-38). The Navy and Coast Guard signed an agreement in August 2004 that allowed four ships (Tempest, Shamal, Tornado and Zephyr) to be under the operational command of the Coast Guard (USCG) beginning in October 2004. The ships were under USCG in a variety of roles including SAR missions, inspection, patrol and interception (mainly alien migrant and drug interdiction). All the ships that were loaned to USCG were returned to the Navy in 2008 and 2011 and placed back in commission.

Read More ->>

Thursday 7 August 2014

INFOGRAPHICS #1: Queen Elizabeth class aircraft carriers of the Royal Navy

Illustrious (left) sits alongside Queen Elizabeth at Rosyth in 2014,
showing the difference in size between the Invincible class and the
ships that will replace them - the comparison is shocking!
The Queen Elizabeth class aircraft carriers will be the biggest and most powerful warships ever constructed for the Royal Navy. The first ship, HMS Queen Elizabeth is due to enter service in 2020. Some key facts about the class by the Aircraft Carrier Alliance. The ships will be 65,000 tonnes at full displacement - over three times the size of the Invincible Class aircraft carriers. The length is 280m - 90m longer than the Invisible class aircraft carriers while the width is 70m - twice the Invisible's width. Each ship has two propellers which together will output some 80MW of power - enough to run 1,000 family cars or 50 high speed trains. The distribution network on board will manage enough energy to power 300,000 kettles or 5,500 family homes. Each ship's two propellers will weigh 33 tonnes each - nearly two and half times as heavy as a double decker bus and one and half times as high. Each of the two huge aircraft lifts can move two Joint Strike Fighters from the hangar to the flight deck in 60 seconds. They're so powerful that together they could lift the entire ship's crew. Each of the QE Class aircraft carriers can take up to 40 aircraft, both rotary and fixed wing. There will be a 110MW power station on board each ship - that's enough to provide all of Portsea Island with power. The anchors will be 3.1m high, each weighing 13 tonnes - almost as much as a double decker bus. The ships on-board water treatment plant will produce over 500 tonnes of fresh water daily.

Read More ->>

Wednesday 6 August 2014

Bergamini class (FREMM) frigates of the Italian Navy

Written by D-Mitch

Italian Navy Bergamini class FREMM variants in formation
Bergamini class is the Italian variant of the FRigate European Multi-Mission (FREMM) class, a class of frigates designed by the French DCNS and the Italian Ficantieri in a joint program to replace the existing destroyers and frigates within the French and Italian navies. As we mentioned in the article about the French variant, the Aquitaine class, the frigates between the two navies share some general characteristics, weapons and systems but also have several differences in the equipment related to propulsion system, electronic equipment and weapons following the different requirements of both navies. The Italian Navy (Marina Militare Italiana) is building two variants/versions of Bergamini class frigates, one for ASW (Anti-Submarine Warfare) role and one for General Purpose (GP) role; in this article both variants will be described. Italian Navy aims to replace the eight (8) frigates of Maestrale class and the four (4) frigates of the Lupo class with ten (10) Bergamini class which are devided in three variants including the AAW for the last pair of ships. Bergamini class is a class of stealth frigates with advanced Anti-Aircraft Warfare (AAW) capabilities featuring a common sensor and weapons package based on MBDA’s SAAM-ESD (Extended Self-Defence) area defence system, including Selex ES MFRA EMPAR-derived C-band multifunction radar with active phased array antenna and Aster 15 and Aster 30 missiles in A50silos. EMPAR MFRA is an evolved version of the EMPAR radar (embarked on Orizzonte class destroyers and the Cavour aircraft carrier). In addition to that, each variant is specialized in a specific role, GP or ASW, with increased equipment to perform this particular role.

Read More ->>

Friday 1 August 2014

FLEETS #1: The United States Navy today

The United States Navy in 2018 (updated), ships and submarines in service and under construction. A poster created by Raytheon in PDF format here!

U.S. Navy in 2018. High resolution image here.

Read More ->>

Tuesday 29 July 2014

Kilic I/II class fast attack craft of the Turkish Navy

Written by D-Mitch

Meltem, boat of Kilic II class. Photo: Turkish Navy
The Kilic (Kılıç) class is the latest class of fast attack craft in service of the Turkish Navy. The class comprises a total of 9 ships. The first batch of three boats are designated Kılıc I (or else Kilic class) and the second batch of six boats are designated Kılıc II (or else Tufan class). The boats are designed by Lurssen; the first batch of ships entered in service the period 1998-2000 while the second batch commissioned the period 2005-2010. The main differences between the two classes are the electronic equipment (specifically the EO fire control tracking system) and the cupola of the main gun. The first two boats were built in Germany and the rest in Turkey (Golcuk shipyards). The full displacement of these boats with the stealth characteristics is 552tons, the length is 62m, the speed is about 40knots and the range is 3,300n.m. with a cruise speed of 16knots. On the bow deck it is an OTO Melara 76mm/62cal gun; it is not clear though if it belongs to the latest Super Rapido version or the older Compatto. The guns onboard the boats of Kilic II class are mounted in a stealth cupola to reduce radar cross-section. The gun is capable to intercept air and surface targets at a distance of 4 km (at 85 degrees) and 16 km (effective 8 km) respectively unleashing 85rnds/min (Compatto) or 120 rnds/min (Super Rapido), weighting greater than 6 kg each.

Read More ->>

Wednesday 23 July 2014

Laskos class and Kavaloudis class fast attack craft of the Hellenic Navy

Written by D-Mitch

Boat of Kavaloudis class.
Photo: former admiral A. Panagopoulos
Boat of Laskos class.
Photo: Hellenic Navy
In a previous article we described the most modern class of fast attack missile craft (FACM) of Hellenic Navy (Πολεμικό Ναυτικό), the Roussen class. However, the backbone of the fast attack craft fleet consists of two older classes, the Laskos and Kavaloudis class. Laskos class is known as type Combattante IIIA while Kavaloudis class as type Combattante IIIB. Hellenic Navy, after the purchase and entry into service of the Konidis class FACMs (type Combattante II) in 1972 (P-14 Anninos, P-15 Arliotis, P-16 Konidis and P-17 Batsis, all withdrawn the period 2002 - 2004), decided to buy more boats of the type but larger and with heavier armament. It is worth of mention that the boats of Konidis class were the first missile boats to enter service in the Hellenic Navy and the first FACS worldwide that carried the Exocet missiles, one of the most modern anti-shipping missiles of that time. Thus, in September 1974, HN ordered again from CMN and their shipyard in Cherbourg in France, four vessels of the type Combattante IIIA, an admittedly heavy armed design for its time. The vessels were delivered in the period 1977-1978. Laskos class boats are of full displacement 429 tons (almost double displacement of the previous class), length of 56.6 meters, a maximum speed approaching 36 knots with economic speed of 25 knots and a range of 2,500 nautical miles and a complement of 42 men.

Read More ->>

Monday 14 July 2014

Horizon class destroyers of the French and Italian Navy

Written by D-Mitch

The four vessels in the Horizon class in formation
The Horizon/Orrizonte class destroyers is a class of four hich-tech stealth Anti-Air Warfare (AAW) ships which were commissioned the period 2008-2009 in French Navy (Marine Nationale) and Italian Navy (Marina Militare Italiana).  Two ships were built for each navy, under a multi-national collaboration between the two countries, the Horizon SAS. Horizon SAS was a temporary consortium of companies between Italy and France (50% Italy - 50% France) provided by Orrizonte Sistemi Navali (joint venture between Fincantieri and Finmeccanica) and Armaris (joint venture between DCN and Thales). The project originally included also the United Kingdom  however due to differing requirements from the Royal Navy for a heavier ship that can provide air defence to a fleet that operates in hostile waters, the United Kingdom proceeded alone to develop the Type 45 destroyer instead. The main differences in the requirements were in the Vertical Launching System (VLS) and the scanned array radar. Though four units were planned for each navy, only two were built for each one. The French vessels, Forbin and Chevalier Paul, replaced the two AAW vessels of Suffren class while the Italian vessels of the Andrea Doria class, Andrea Doria and Caio Duilio, replaced the two AAW vessels of Audace class. The armament and equipment are almost identical between the vessels in service with France and Italy. The class carries a variety of weapons and electronic equipment and it is capable for any kind of mission. Great emphasis was given on the stealth performance and thus tilted superstructures, composite materials and special coatings contribute to a very small radar signature.
Read More ->>